CO2 footprint for distribution oil immersed transformers according to ISO 14067:2018
In the last few decades, climate change and the global warming have emerged as important environmental issues. The cause of global warming is the increase of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). There are several greenhouse gases responsible for global warming: water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxides, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and others. They are mostly the result of the fossil fuels' combustion in cars, buildings, factories, and power plants. The gas responsible for the most of the global warming is carbon dioxide (CO2). This increase in the greenhouse gas emissions leads to a greater interest of the consumers, board management and stakeholders in the environmental impact of their activities, products and services.
The verification of the Carbon Footprint of distribution oil immersed transformer, presented in this paper, was recognized as an opportunity for the company to understand its own environmental impact and to identify inefficiencies and opportunities within its business.
Carbon Footprint of a Product (CFP) is a rather new term closely related to the greenhouse gas emissions. The CFP is considered as a total of the greenhouse emissions generated during the life cycle of a product – that is, from raw material acquisition or generation from natural resources to a final disposal. It is described within the standard ISO 14067:2018 Carbon footprint of products – Requirements and guidelines for quantification . This standard belongs to the environmental series ISO 14000 and enables the organization to demonstrate its environmental responsibility.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), as well as the Carbon Footprint of products together with environmental impact of the product, are shown in this paper in accordance with standard ISO 14067:2018. The LCA is a method for the quantification of the environmental impacts of individual products. It takes into account a complete life cycle, starting from a raw material production, until the product’s final disposal or materials’ recycling in accordance with ISO 14040  and ISO 14044 . Greenhouse gases are expressed in mass-based CO2 equivalents (CO2e), which is the unit of measurement in the ISO 14067:2018 standard. The functional unit in ISO 14067:2018 can be either a product or a service. In this paper, the functional unit was the product – oil immersed distribution transformer, in four product variations. The LCA scope used in the preparation of this study was "cradle to gate" – it covers the CFP from the acquisition of the raw materials ("cradle") up to dispatch from the factory ("gate").
The objectives of product life cycle considerations in Končar D&ST Inc. are to reduce the use of natural resources and emissions to the environment, as well as to improve social performance at different stages of the product life cycle.
By linking the economic and ecological dimension of the production, different aspects during realization of product in all phases of the life cycle come together. In this way company achieves cleaner products and processes, competitive advantage in the market and improved platform that will meet the needs of the changing business climate.
Lifecycle thinking is based on the principles of reducing environmental impacts at the beginning of product creation, giving a wider picture of material and energy flow and ultimately environmental pollution prevention. These principles are organized in Končar D&ST Inc. internally by planning and introducing cleaner manufacturing processes, environmental protection management and eco-design.
Incorporating ISO 14067:2018 into company business is recognized as an opportunity for transparent communication to interested parties, incorporating CO2 emissions into annual reports and as a baseline information for a first step towards managing carbon emissions.