Application of Differential Magnetic Field Measurement (DMFM method) in winding fault detection of AC rotating machines as part of expert monitoring systems


  • Ante Elez KONČAR – Generators and Motors
  • Josip Študir KONČAR – Generators and Motors
  • Stjepan Tvorić KONČAR – Electrical Engineering Institute



finite element, induction machine, inter-turn shorted circuits, rotor bars, rotor cage faults, synchronous generator, magnetic field, measuring coil, induced voltage, air gap


Stator and rotor winding damages in rotating machines are result of electrical, mechanical, and thermal stress. Online magnetic field monitoring via permanently installed measuring coils inside air gap is a well-established methodology which enables winding fault detection. The paper deals with a new method for detection of stator and rotor winding inter-turn short circuits of synchronous machines and slip rings induction machines, as well as rupture of rotor bars and cage ring of induction machines. The method novelty is based on differential measurement of magnetic field by using two serial connected measuring coils. They are installed on the places (stator or rotor teeth) in the machine which have, by absolute value, equal magnetic vector potential. The distance between the measuring coils is n·tp, where tp is a pole pitch, and n = 1, 2, 3, 4,... is a multiple of the pole pitch. Measuring the coil-induced voltage enables us to detect stator and rotor winding faults, which means that measured voltage is approximately zero without fault and increases in the presence of fault. Analysis of the measuring signal allows us to detect and locate fault. With this new method it is possible with high sensitivity to determine winding fault, which enables more reliable fault detection. For example, in comparison with the motor current signature analysis method (the most widely used method for motor faults detection), this new method gives 200 times higher sensitivity to fault occurrence. Also, by using the DMFM method, faults can be detected in the time domain and there is no need for spectral or other complex signal analysis. This is very important because the measuring equipment used for machine fault detection can be simple and more economically acceptable. The DMFM method enables fault detection for even small machines with small expense in a very effective way. The only downside of the DMFM method is the fact that machine should be disassembled in order to install measuring coils. This problem is solved during the machine overhaul or during the manufacturing of the machine, when sensors can be easily implemented in the machine. For machines with large air gap, measuring coils can be installed without a machine disassembly. For the purpose of the method testing, numerous finite-element (FE) simulations on the 2- and 3-D machine models have been carried out to verify the method. Powerful numerical tools generate realistic results with properly selected starting and boundary conditions. By FEM models, actual machines with embedded measuring coils where created and simulated. The voltage induced inside the measuring coils is calculated for different machine states, load point and with and without a fault (broken rotor bar or inter-turn short circuit). Also, this method was experimentally validated via series of laboratory tests performed on the real electric machines specially designed for fault study (broken rotor bars, broken ring and inter-turn short circuits in a stator and rotor winding). Additionally, this method is applied on more than 20 real machines in industry. Due to the large amount of measured data, in this paper, it will be presented only one measurement performed on an induction motor on which we have detected one broken rotor bar. The thickness of the measuring coil designed in the printed circuit board technique is 0.3 mm. The number of turns is from 3 to 10. This new method and performed FEM calculations together with the experimental measurements improve fault detection portfolio knowledge that can be used in monitoring and diagnostics of rotating machines. Furthermore, this patent-pending method is already implemented in three innovative products placed on market (expert monitoring systems), so this method is fully confirmed in practice.


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