Calculations of lightning-induced voltages in distribution lines with LSA
Keywords:Surge arresters, induced voltages, lightning protection, modeling
Total losses of a power transformer are subdivided in several distinctive parts. The I2R losses are easy to calculate and can be precise to a level of measurement repeatability and tolerances of the guaranteed material properties. The additional losses inside the windings can be calculated almost with the same precision using analytic methods. The third part of the load losses that consists of stray losses is the smallest and the most difficult to estimate. However, stray losses estimation is very important in the design phase of a power transformer. Not only because the guaranteed design parameters have to be satisfied, but also the utmost care has to be taken that local losses density across the power transformer does not exceed levels that are permissible in the long term loading conditions of a transformer. The additional losses estimation process presented in this paper models the additional losses level in a transformer as a unit.